Peaks and troughs If a figure rises to a level and then stops rising, remaining at that level, it levels off and remains steady or stable. In the US, senior managers in charge of particular areas are often called vice presidents (Ws). The plant is highly automated: we use a lot of machinery. You need to find out how they’re used. 5 Two weeks later, Superinc had still not received an invoice, making them think Messco's invoicing was not very efficient. e approach to economics. The person they chose was a respected retired polltlclan. READ PAPER.9619Business Vocabulary In Use (Cambridge Professional English)[ Cambridge … The fastest way for an advanced learner like you to do that is to read and watch business news often. 36.3 Use expressions from C and D opposite to describe: 1 a bank that makes companies' shares available. A job interview After this, we shortlist three or four candidates. I've never joined a company pension scheme and the government state pension is very small!' The mix may include a range of brands, tempting prices, convenient sales outlets and a battery of advertising and promotions. h I suppose so. /i;m waiting to be paid by s o m 7 of my customers. 1 The pricing policy is to sell below 2 3 4 5 6 7 AII pnces ~n euras 11st pr~ces. 2 buying and selling of shares on a st( 3 a day with twice as many shares solId as usual on a particular stock market. This is called depreciation or amortization. c parties for the charity. I'm in charge of research (5) ....................... development (6) ....................... our ( 7 researching) ....................... centre in Delhi. ....................... , using scientific knowledge (15) ....................... improve people's lives. Below you will find the phrases and vocabulary you need for survival in the English-speaking work environment. When a company's results are presented in a way that makes them look betier than they really are, even if it follows the rules, it may be accused of creative accounting or window dressing. Downshifting doesn't necessarily you are a likely candidate for not just a job change but a 'downshift'. . Match each task (1-6) to the manager most likely to be responsible for doing it. X Yes, all that extra stuff is really worth having. When should you open them? 4 A company manager who wants to discuss something with managers in different offices at the same time. (6) 11 The final figure for profit or loss. Some organizations have a code of ethics or code of conduct where they say what their managers' and employees' behaviour should be, to try to prevent them behaving unethically. I felt stretched: I had the feeling that work could sometimes be difficult, but that it was stimulating, it interested me and made me feel good. I love (14 technological) in increasing rice production. Anyway, I'm calling you to discuss the contract we were talking about in Frankfurt. Don't aim for perfectionism when there is no need for it. 4 I rung them five minutes ago but there was no answer. The competition refers to all the products, businesses, etc. Sven Nyman here. H o w about Wednesday? Note: Found is a regular verb. 2 New York: the Dow Jones Industrial Average ('the Dow'). Jacqueline Harding, Madrid, Spain; Ann Claypole, Birkenfeld, Germany; Yvette Petitjean, Brussels, Belgium; Kristi Alcouffe, Bonelles, France; Philippa-Louise Dralet, Paris, France; Aedin Whitty, Amsterdam, Holland; Joseph Peacock, Warsaw, Poland; Rachel Tomlinson, Stroud, UK; Students at OISE, Cambridge. And we've all seen those annoying people who keep on wandering off the 6 time, and nothing is achieved. The working breakfast is rare.) The si~ppliersand other organizations that I o\ve nic to are my accounts payablc payables. What about the following week? 10 = The government interest rates. We look at the backgrounds of applicants: their experience of different jobs and their educational qualifications. You must ensure that the timid have a chance to (3)say what they want; deal (4) in a diplomatic wav with the argumentative and to be kind to the (5) person you have asked-& 55.2 f o r e a h point and keep things moving by not letting people (7) ~ander-o&!kzu_bject. I pager: allows you to receive written messages I webcam: a camera attached to a computer and phone line, so two people talking on the phone can see each other. 16.2 Rearrange these lines to make a text containing words from B and C opposite. There are long business lunches in restaurants, where deals are discussed. Using English in a business environment Are the statements below true or false? a work in shifts b work under a flexitime system c telecommute d commute to work e clock on and off at the same time every day 2.2 Look at the words and expressions in B and C opposite. m Hi. g The code for Sweden is 49, right? sl-ocClmvenCorres . 35 t ai a:t/ state-of-the-art / , s t e ~av 15 t state-owned / , s t e ~aund 'kampanid companies 11 steel 1sti:ll 13 step /step/ 42 stereotypes l'steriautarpsl 45 g sticking points l ' s t ~ k ~p3lntsl 65 stiff / s t ~ f20 / 2,43 stimulating I'st~mjale~trgl stock exchange / ' s t ~ k 1ks,tJe1nd3/ 36 stock market I ' s t ~ kma:k~t/36 stock options / ' s t ~ k~ p J a n z 5 / stocks / s t ~ k s /17 stoppage /'st~p1d3/6 I70 Business Vocabulary in Use store /sts:/ 24 stored /st3:d/ 17 street furniture 1'stri:t ,fs:nrtJal 25 street vendors I1stri:t vendarzl 19 stress-induced I'stres 1ndju:stI 43 stressed out /,strest 'autl 43 stresses and strains /,stres~zand 'stre~nzi43 stressful /'stresfull43 stretched /stretJt/ 43 strike 1stra1W 6 structure /'straktJal59 subcontracting I1sabkan,traekt~gl 17 subordinates lsa1b3:danats1 44 subsidiaries lsab's~diarid34 sum up I s m 'apt 58, 60 supermarket Ifsu:pa,ma:k~tl24 suppliers lsa'pla~ad17 support staff /saip3:t sta:f/ 6 surf /ss:f/ 26 surge lss:d31 39 surveys 1'ss:verzI 14 sweatshop labor / , s w e t J ~ p 'le1bal41 sweetener /'swi:tanal 40 switchboard I1sw~tfi3:d/49 4 systematic /,s~sta'maet~W tactfully IitaektfaW 55 takeover I'terkauval 34 talented I'taelantrdl 4 talk /t3:W 59 target l'ta:g~tl 24,27 task 1ta:sW 42 team of equals 1,ti:m av 'i:kwalzl 45 team-players /,ti:mtple~az/4 technical support /,tekn~kal sa1p3:t/ 6 technology ltek'n~lad3215 telecommunications l,tel~ka,mju:nl'ke~Janz/ 13 telecommuting l,tel~ka'mju:t~gl 2 telemarketing l,tel~'ma:kitrgI24 telephone banking /,telrfaun 'baegk~gl35 teleworking /'tel~ws:krg/2 temporary l'tempararii 1, 7 terminate l'ts:m~neitl 7 testing /'testlg/ 14 textiles l'teksta~lzi13 the City /aa 's1t2 36 the close /aa klauz/ 37 the four ps laa fs: 'pi:z/ 21 the free market /aa ,fri: 'ma:k~t/ 19 the market /aa 'ma:k~tl 19 the Square Mile /aa skwea 'rna~ll36 threats /&ets/ 65 time / t a ~ m l42 time is money l , t a ~ mIZ 'man2 42 time management / , t a m 'maen1d3mantl 42 timeframe /'taimfrerml42 timescale l'ta~mske~ll 42 l / 63 timetable / ' t a ~ m , t e ~ b42, l timings I ' t a ~ m ~ g z60 tips / t ~ p s l5 tiring / t a ~ a ~2g / to license Ita 'la~sansl15 to market /ta 'ma:k~t/ 21 to rally lta 'raeW 37 to recover Ita r1'kaval37 to settle Ita 'setll 66 toll-free number l,taul,fri: 'nmbal top-down approach /tDpldaun aprautJ1 44 top-end l t ~ p ' e n d l23 total costs /,tautalik~sts/27 total market capitalization ltautal ,ma:k~t ,kaep~tala~'ze~Janl 37 total quality management (TQM) 1,tautal , k w ~ l a t i 'maenrdgmant/ 18 tough lthfl2,20 tourism l'tuar~zaml13 trade balance / t r e ~ d'baelansl38 trade credit I t r e ~ d'kred~tl29 trade deficit I t r e ~ d'defrs~tl38 trade down / t r e ~ d'daun! 6 He has a temporary job. 29.1 Put these events in the correct order. 1 Let's get the materials in (only when we need t h e m 1 to keep costs down. I started a little wine shop in Amsterdam, working on my own. We'll be (back) in touch soon. Business Vocabulary in Use Advanced Second edition is for students and professionals looking to expand their business vocabulary. (6) 9 Not a profit. to send something by fax to fax someone to fax something to fax someone something to fax something (over/across) to someone Fax layout 1 cover sheet: the first page of a fax showing who it's from, who it's to, etc. 39.2 Complete the crossword with expressions from C and D opposite. It will be the biggest ever merger in the oil industry. If a figure reaches its highest level - a peak - and then goes down, it peaks at that level. \Would you like to leave a message? B: He can't speak to you. (7,5,4) 6 This job is so important, 1 think we need to ................ strong, but I understand someone. 5 Petron is a price .................... ;it's usually the first to offer lower prices. You know we have put a lot of money into management development and management training because they are very important. If you do not receive all pages, or if any pages are illegible. that belong to sotneone Business Vocabulary in Use 39 Making things Products A product can be: I something natural. 2 It's possible to use Mr, Mrs or Miss on its own, or with a first name. 3 Our stylish new corporate culture shows our wish to be seen as a more international airline. (See Unit 34) Debt and debt problems Here are some expressions that can be used to talk about a company's debts, or a country's foreign debts: ' debt , repayment servicing when a company repays its debt and/or interest on it; 'debt repayment' describes a particular amount repaid burden a company's debt, especially when considered as a problem crisis when a company has serious difficulty repaying its debt rescheduling restructuring when a company persuades lenders to change repayment dates and terms default when a company fails to make a debt repayment Note: to reschedule restructure a debt to repay default on service Turnarounds and bailouts Doomco is in financial trouble and it is being described as sick, ailing and troubled. 1 It would be good to see Anna soon. If a woman is unfairly treated just because she is a woman, she is a victim of sex discrimination. I Perhaps Asking for one person's opinion: r What about you, Keith? The Woof (2) ...................... is owned by a big international group. Market growth Women are a particularly interesting target for the Volvo V70. Some are basic, some more sophisticated. it makes the other company leave the market, perhaps because it can no longer compete. Business Vocabulary in Use 25.1 Complete the crossword using expressions from A, B and C opposite. Good to talk to you. , - The more you eat, the thinner you get, and (d) the focal groups said they liked the taste, but first we had to prove to the authorities that it was (e) secure. 6 Companies hit by computer crime are not talking about it because they fear the publicity will harm their corporate profits. You could say: I Let me just golrun over (repeat and summarize) the main points. Business Vocabulary in Use is designed to help intermediate and upper-intermediate learners of business English improve their business vocabulary. A: Annelise Schmidt. If you have, you know just how irritating it is. 6 You should go on a time management course. Apart from improving your business vocabulary, the book also helps you to develop the language needed for important business communication skills. This paper. m company called Megaco PLC. to shareholders, rather than encouraging companies to invest. She is the first to arrive, at exactly 3 o'clock. It's 1 5 metres long and has everything you need for comfort on long voyages. A A The times or dates when things should happen is a schedule or timetable. Tips for Improving Your Business English Vocabulary Quickly 1. A judge was chosen. ! This also includes payments from abroad, for example, from investments. 4 He wanted to make the article look good, so he spent a lot of time adjusting the spacing of the lines, changing the text, etc. 3 X: The people in production get a ...........................if they reach their targets. , More word combinations with 'market' I J 'Market' . 5 X: And they've given me a ...................................................... t o go and visit clients. I A police service reduces the number of forms to fill in when a crime is reported, first from fifteen to twelve, then to ten, then to seven, then to three. 4 He qualified for an accountant and joined a big accountancy firm in its Mumbai office. 9 As you know, Megabook wants to buy this company. Give him advice based on the ideas in C. The first one has been done for you. 1 Meet with advertising agency to discuss new advertisements for the company's holidays. Business Vocabulary in Use. You ask for the extension of the person you want to speak to. If not, it is uneconomical. The gains in productivity have been very good.' 1 Someone who buys food in a supermarket. I've got to go to a meeting. Lamda said they were being forced to accept something that they did not want. I cost of goods sold (COGS): the variable costs in making particular goods (e.g. They've called in a company doctor, Susan James, an expert in turning round companies. If you have made some mistakes, go back and look at the explanations and exercise again. (3-3) 8 You find this in an annual report. You talk about temporary work and permanent work. Of course, many users belong to both groups, but this is our (5) way- of dividing our consumers. Y: Wow! on another line. Derivatives A futures contract is an agreement giving an obligation to sell a fixed amount of a security or commodity at a particular price on a particular future date. O n engine quantities, 2 I think that covers everything. Promotional activities Promotion (uncountable) is all the activities supporting the sale of a product, including advertising. (refer back: go back) there are limits as t o what we can ask from the creatives. For example, family cars are a mass market product. The baseball players went on strike. If a publisher takes a newspaper downmarket, they make it more popular, but less cultural, to increase sales. 6 If you could fax everything, that would be great! 3 buy a packet of sugar when all the supermarkets are closed. They are an important market segment for Volvo. I motivated: very keen to do well in their job. materials). My firm operates in many countries and we are very aware of this! It's not the sort of thing you can learn when you're 2O! annual meeting i,znjual 'mi:t~gi 54 annual report 1,aenjual r~'ps:ti 31 applicant I'zpl~kantl3 application form i,aepl~'keiJan fs:d 3 applied for ia'pla~dfs:i 3 appoint Ia'ps~nti3 s/ 3 appointments ia'ps~ntmant approachable ialprautJabll 44,45 arbitration i,a:biltre~Jad66 i arbitrator i ' a : b ~ t r e ~ t a66 argument ila:gjamanti 57 arrangements ia're~ndgmantsi 51 assembly line ia'sembli l a ~ n16 i asset i'zseti 30 atmosphere i'aetmasf~ai63 attach ialtaetJ/ 53 administrator I a d ' m ~ n ~ s t r e ~ t a i attachment Ia'tztJmanti 53 33 audience iis:dians/ 59 advance iadlva:ns/ 39 audit /'s:d~ti 31 auditors /'s:d~taz31 adversarial i,zdvalseariall 65 authoritarian i,s:Our~'teariad44 advertise i ' z d v a t a ~ z i25 16 advertiser /'zdvata~zai25 automated i's:tame~t~dl advertising agency i ' z d v a t a ~ z ~ g axe /aeks/ 39 ,e~dgantsii25 back down 1,bzk ' d a u d 65 advertising campaign background i'baekgraundi 3, 63 I'aedvata~z~g kaem,pe~d25 backhander /,baek1haendai 40 advertising medium bad debts 1,bzd 'detsi 29 I'aedvata~z~g 'mi:diamI 25 bad working environment /,baed ,w3:k1g ~n'va~aranmanti 8 aerospace i'earauspe~si13 AFAIK 53 bailout i'be~lauti33 affirmative action ia,fs:mat~v balance of payments i'baelans av 'aekJad 8 , 4 1 'pe~mantsi 38 agenda ia'dgendai 55, 63 balance sheet i'baelans Ji:ti 30 agree /aLgri:/ 57 bank statement i'baegk ,ste~tmanti35 ahead of schedule ia,hed av 'Jedju:li 42 banking charges i'baegk~g ailing i'e111gI 33 ,tJa:dgizi 35 alliance /a'la~ansi34 bargain i'ba:g~ni 62, 66 55 allocated i'aelake~t~dl bargainer iiba:g~nai62 bargaining i'ba:g~nlgi62, 63, amortization i a , m s : t ~ ' z e ~ J a d 65 30 bargaining position i ' b a : g ~ n ~ g amortize ia'ms:ta~zi30 p a , z ~ p d63 anecdote i'aen~kdauti60 angry i'aengrii 57 bargaining power i ' b a : g ~ n ~ g pauai 65 annual general meeting (AGM) k i 23 basic i ' b e ~ s ~ 5, i'znjual 'dgenaral 'mi:t~g/54 accept iak'septi 3 accessible Iak'sesabll 45 account ia'kaunti 26, 35 accountancy ia'kauntansii 31 accountant ia'kauntantl 31 accounting rules ia'kaunt~g ru:lzi 31 accounting standards ia'kaunt~g 'stzndadzl 31 accounts ia'kaunts i 29, 31 accurate record i'zkjarat 'reks:dl 55 acquire ia'kwa~ai34 acquisition i , z k w ~ ' z ~ J a n i 33,34 action points ilzkJan p s ~ n t s i55 address book Ia'dres buW 53 administrationladmin /ad,rn~n~'stre~Jani'zdm~d 6 administrative staff 160 Business Vocabulary in Use basic salary i , b e ~ s ~ 'szlarii k 5 bcc 53 be on sale i,bi: un ' s e ~ l l27 bear market i'bea ,ma:k~ti37 bearish i'bear1J1 37 behind schedule i b ~ , h a ~ n d 'Jedju:V 42 benchmarking ilbenJma:k~gi 18 s i 21 benefits i ' b e n ~ f ~ t 5, benefits package i ' b e n ~ f ~ t s , p z k ~ d g 5i best practice /,best ' p r z k t ~ s i18 beta version 1'bi:ta ,vs:Jan/ 14 si big business i , b ~ g' b ~ z n ~11 billboards i'b11bs:dzi 25 billing /'b111g/ 29 bitter i ' b ~ t a i65 blackboard I1blzkbs:dl 60 bleeding red ink i,bli:d~gred 'IIJW 31 blue chips /,blu: 'tJ1ps1 37 bluff iblhfi 65 board ibs:dl 9 board meeting ilbs:d mi:t~gi 54 boardroom i1bs:dru:mI 5 bonds ibundzi 32, 36 bonus i'baunasi 5 bonus payments i'baunas ,pe~mantsi42 book value i'buk ,vaelju:i 30 bookkeepers i1buk,ki:pazI 31 boom 1bu:mI 39 boring i'bs:r~gi 2 born leaders i,bs:n '1i:dazi 44 borrower i'burauai 32 borrowing i'burau~gi32 boss ~ D S9/ bottom line / , b ~ t a m 'la~ni31 bottom out / , b ~ t a m'auti 39 ' e n d 23 bottom-end i , b ~ t a m bourse ibuasi 36 branch ibra:ntJi 35 brand /braendl 22, 30 branded i'braendidl 22 branding i'braend1gi22 break even i , b r e ~ k'i:vad 28 breakthroughs i'bre1k0ru:zi 15 bribe ibra~bi40 bribery i'bra~barii40 bricks-and-mortar i , b r ~ kan s 'ms:tai 26 briefing i'bri:f~gi 59 bring to a close i , b r ~ gtu: a 'klauzi 58 broke down 1,brauk 'daunt 66 brokers i'braukazi 36 budget i'b~d31ti28 bugs i b ~ g z i14 building societies i ' b ~ l d ~ g sa,sa~atizi12 building society i ' b ~ l d ~ r ~ sa,sa~ati/35 bull market i'bul ,ma:k~ti37 bullet point i'bul~tp31nti 60 bullish I'bul~Ji37 bully i'bulii 8 bureaucratic i,bjuara'krzet~k/ 11,44 burned out i,bs:nd 'auti 43 burnout ilbs:nauti 43 s i 11, 18, business i ' b ~ z n ~ 10, 26,47 business process re-engineering ~s ri: (BPR) i , b ~ z n ,prauses e n d g ~ l n ~ a ~18g i business-to-business (B2B) i ' b ~ z n ta ~ s' b ~ z n ~ 26 si business-to-consumer (B2C) i ' b ~ z n ta ~ skan'sju:mai 26 business-to-government (B2G) i ' b ~ z n ta ~ s'gavanmanti 26 i 49 busy tone i ' b ~ ztaunt buyer i ' b a ~ a i19 buying managers i ' b a ~ ~ g ,mzen~dgarzi19 CADCAM 14,16 calendar i'kzelandai 42 call ik3:Y 48 call centres 1ks:l ,sentazi 24 call someone's bluff i,ks:l ,samwanz 'blafi 65 call back i,k3:l 'bzek/ 49 candidate i ' k a n d ~ d a t i3 canteen culture ikanlti:n ,kaltJai 45 capacity ika'pzesatii 1 6 capital ilkzeprtal/ 1 7 captains of industry i,kzept~nz av '~ndastrii10 cariautomobiles ika:r 's:tamaubi:lzi 13 cards 1ka:dzi 59 career ladder l k a ' r ~ a,lzedad 7 a 7 career paths i k a ' r ~ pa:azi cash ikzeJi28,29, 33 cash cows iikzeJ kauzi 28 cash mountain I'kzeJ maunt~ni 33 cash pile I'kzeJ pa~Y33 cash reserves i'kzeJ r~,zs:vzi33 cashflow i'kzeJflaui 29 casual Fridays iIka3jual ' f r a ~ d e ~ z46 i casually i1kze3jualii 46 catalog i'kzetalugi 22 catalogue i'kzetalugi 22 r~i catering i ' k e ~ t a r ~13 cc 1,si:'si:i 53 r~i cease trading i,si:s ' t r e ~ d ~33 cellphone ilselfaun/ 48 cellular i'seljalai48 cellular phone i,seljala 'faun/ 48 chain store I ' t J e ~ nst3:/ 24 chairperson iltJea,ps:san/ 55 challenging i'tJzel1nd31gi 43 change hands i,tJe1nd3 'hzendzi 37 charge itJa:dgi 23, 30 charisma ika'r~zmai44 charities I'tJzer~tizi12 cheap 1tJi:pi 23 cheque ItJeki 35 cheque account iltJek a,kaunti 35 chief executive officer (CEO) 1,tJi:f ~ g , z e k j a t 'uf~sai ~v 9 chief financial officer i,tJi:f fa1'nzentJal u f ~ s a i9 chief operating officer 1,tJi:f ' u p a r e ~ t ~u qf ~ s a i9 Chinese walls i,tJa~ni:z'ws:lzi 40 churn out i,tJs:n 'auti 16 circulate i'ss:kjale~ti55 classified advertisements i,klzes~fa~d ad'vs:t~smantsi 25 clicks-and-mortar i , k l ~ kan s 'm3:tal-I 26 client base i'kla~antb e d 19 clientele 1,kli:unltel/ 19 clients i'kla~antsi19 climb down i'kla~md a u d 65 clinching a deal i , k l ~ n t J a~ r ~ 'di:l/ 66 clock in /kluk'~n/2 clock off ikluk'ufi 2 clock on i k l u k ' ~ n l 2 clock out ikluk auti 2 closing a deal i,klauz~r~ a di:V 66 code of conduct 1,kaud av ' k u n d ~ k t i41 code of ethics ikaud av 'e01ksi 41 cold calls i,kauld 'k3:lzi 24 collapse ika'lzepsi 33, 37 collateral ikallzetaraY 32 combine ikum'ba~nl34 come to a consensus ilkam tu: a kan'sensasi 58 commercial ikalms:JaY 11, 36 commercial airline ika,ms:Jal ' e a l a ~ d11 commercial artist ika,ms:S.l 'a:t~sti11 commercial disaster ika,ms:S.l d~'za:stai11 commercial land ika,ms:Jal 'lzend 11 commercial paper ika,ms:Jal 'pe~pai36 commercial television ika,ms:Jal , t e l ~ ' v ~ g a11 n/ commission I k a ' m ~ J a d5 commodities ika'mudatizi 36 commodities exchange Ika'mudatiz ~ k s ' t J e ~ n d g36i common ground 1,kuman 'graund i 65 commute ika1mju:t/ 2 commuters ika'mju:tazi 2 company i'kampanii 11,45 company car i,kampani'ka:i 5 company hierarchy 1,kampani 'ha1ara:kii 7 company pension scheme 1,kampani 'pentpn ski:m/ 35 compensation i,kurnpan'se~Janl 5 compensation package compensation payment i,kumpanlse~Jan ,pe~manti5 compete 1kam'pi:ti 20 ni competition i , k ~ m p a ' t ~ J a 20 competitions i,kumpalt~Janzi 25 arzi 20 competitors ikam'pet~t Business Vocabulary in Use 16 1 completion 1kam'pli:Jad 42 components Ikam'paunant sl 17 compromise I'k~mpramarzl58, 58,65 computer hardware /kam,pju:ta 'ha:dweal 13 computer screen 1kam1pju:ta skri:d 60 computer software lkam,pju:ta ' s ~ f t w e a l13 computer-literate lkam,pju:ta '11tarati 4 conceded Ikan1si:d~d65 concern lkanlss:d 11 concession Ikan'seJad 64 conformity to specifications /kan,f3:mati ta , s p e s ~ f ~ ' k e ~ J a18 nz/ confrontational / , k ~ n f r ~ n ' t e ~ J a65n a ~ conglomerate Ikan'gl~maratl34 consensus Ikan'sensasl 44 construction Ikan'strakJad 13 consultation / , k ~ n s a l ' t e ~ J a44 d consumer durables lkan,s ju:ma 'djuarablzl 22 consumer goods lkan,sju:ma 'gudz I 22 consumer panels /kanlsju:ma ,pznalzl 14 consumers 1kan'sju:mazl 19 content I ' k ~ n t e n t l26, 59 continuous improvement lkan,t~njuas~m'pru:vmantl 18 contract I'k~ntrrektl66 contributions /,k~ntr~'bju:Janzl 35 convenience store /kanlvi:nians st3:I 24 cooling-off period /,ku:11g ' ~ f , p ~ a r i a d66 tl copyright l ' k ~ p i r a ~15 cordless I1k3:dlasl 48 cordless phone /,k3:dlas 'faud 48 core activity 1,kx rek't~vatii34 corporate I1k3:parat/ 11 corporate culture 1 , k ~ p a r a t 'kaltJa1 11, 45 corporate headquarters corporate hospitality l'k3:parat ,h~sp~'trelati/ 47 Business Vocabulary in Use corporate image 1 , k ~ p a r a t '1m1dg1 11 corporate ladder 1 , k ~ p a r a t 'Izdal 11 corporate logo /,k3:parat 'laugaul 11 corporate profits l1k3:parat ' p r ~ f ~ t11 sl corporation lIk3:par1e~Jad11 corrupt Ika'raptl 40 corruption I k a ' r ~ p J a d40 / 23, 27, 28, 42 cost / k ~ s t 16, cost of goods sold (COGS) 1 , k ~ sav t ,gudz 'sauld 27 t 'ju:n~tl cost per unit 1 , k ~ sp3: 28 cost-effective 1 , k ~ s~t ' f e k t ~ 16 vl costing I ' k ~ s t ~ g27l costings I ' k ~ s t ~ g 2z 7l costs / k ~ s t s /2 7 counter-offers I'kaunta ~ f a z l64 counter-proposals I'kaunta pra,pauzalz/ 64 counterfeit notes I,kaunt a f ~ t 'nautsl 40 40 counterfeiting I'kauntaf~t~gl courteous 1'ks:tiasl 5 7 cover l'kaval 54 cover ground 1,kava 'graund 54 covering letterlcover letter I'kavar~g,leta~llkava ,leta/ 3 craft industry 1'kra:ft ,~ndastrii 16 crash IkrreJl 37 creative accounting / k r i , e ~ t ~ v a'kaunt~gl31 credit card I'kred~tka:d 35 credit policy l'kred~t, p ~ l a s i 29 i creditors l'kred~tazl29, 33 cross-promotion 1 , k r ~ s pralmauJad 25 culture I'k~ltJaI45 currencies I'k~rantsizl36 current account 1,karant a'kauntl 35 t current assets / , k ~ r a n 'resets1 30 current liabilities 1 , k ~ r a n t ,la~a'b~latizi 30 curriculum vitae (CV)/resume /'rezame~//,si: 'vi:/ lka,r~kjalam'vi:ta11 3 customer base I'kastama be1s1 19 customer needs 1,kastama 'ni:dzl 21 customers I'kastamazl 19,24 cut I k ~ t l39 fl cut off 1 k ~ t ' ~49 cutting edge / , k a t ~ g'edgl 15 day shift I ' d e ~ J1ft1 2 deadlock l ' d e d l ~ k l66 deal 1di:U 66 deal with lldi:l w161 1 dealer I1di:lal 24 dealers 1'di:lazl 36 debentures 1d1'bentJazl 32 debit card /'debit ka:d 35 debt Idetl 32,33 debt burden l'det ,bs:dad 33 debt crisis l'det , k r a ~ s ~33 sI f 33 debt default I'det d ~ ,3:ltI debt repayment 1,det r ~ ~ p e ~ m a33 ntl debt rescheduling 1,det ,ri:'Jedju:l~gI 33 debt restructuring 1,det ,ri:'straktPr~g/33 debt servicing 1,det ' S ~ : V I S I ~ / 33 debtors l'detazl 29 decentralized /di:'sentrala~zd 44 decision-making / d ~ ' s ~ g a n me1k1g1 44,45 declines l d ~ ' k l a ~ n 37 zl deference I'defaransl 45 delay Id1'1e1l 42 delayered ld1'1e1jad 7 delegate I'del~gatl44 d delegation l , d e l ~ ' g e ~ J a44 delete ld1'1i:tl 53 demand 1d1'ma:nd 37 demanding ld~'ma:nd~g/ 2 demands 1dr'ma:ndzi 65 demerge /,di:lms:d3/ 34 demerger l,di:'ms:d3a/ 34 demonstration /,deman'stre~Jad59 demoted / d ~ ' m a u t ~7d demutualization /,di:mju:tJuala~z'e~Jad12 demutualized /,di:'mju:tJuala~zd 12, 35 department meeting 1d1,pa:tmant 'mi:t~g/54 department store idrlpa:tmant st3:I 24 departmental meeting 1,di:pa:t ,mentallmi:t 1q1 54 deposit account Idr'p~zrt a,kauntl 35 depreciate Idr1pri:Jierti 30 depreciation 1d1,pri:Ji'erJanl 30 depression id1'preJanl 39 vzl derivatives l d ~ ' r ~ v a t ~ 36 design idr'za~nl14, 15 design defect 1d1'zarn ,di:fektl 14 design fault 1d1'zarn ,f3:lt/ 14 l designer l d ~ ' z a ~ n a15 develop 1d1'velapI 15 developer 1d1'velapal 15 dial 1da1aV 49 dialling tone I ' d a ~ a l ~t qa d 49 diary l'da~aril42 difference of opinion l,d~farans av a'prnjanl 57 dignity at work policy l,d~gnati at 'w3:k , p ~ l a s i i8 digress Idar'gresl 60 digressions 1da1'greJanzl 54, 55 dimensions l,da~'mentJanzi18 i direct costs ld~rekt' k ~ s t s27 direct line ld~rekt'la~nl49 direct mail ld~rekt'me~li24 direct marketing ld~rekt 'ma:k~t1q1 24 disagree l,d~sa'gri:l57 disagreement l,d~sa'gri:mantl 58 discount I'drskaunt I 23,25,29 discounter I'd~skauntal24 23 discounting I'd~skaunt~qi discriminate against / d ~ ' s k r r m ~ a,genstl ne~ 8 discuss 1d1'sk~sI57 discussion 1d1'sk~Janl54, 57 dismiss l d ~ ' s m ~ 7s l dispatch / d ~ ' s p z t J /29 dispose of 1d1'spauz DV/ 34 dispute 1d1'spju:tI 65 distance l'd~stansl47 distant l'd~stantl44,45 distractions 1d1'strzkJanzI 42 distributed l d ~ ' s t r ~ b j a t ~33d / distribution chain /,d~str~'bju:Jan tJe~n/24 distribution channel i,drstrr'bju:Jan tJznaV 24 distributors Idr'str~bjatazl24 dive lda~vi39 diversify Ida1'v3:srfarl 34 34 divestment Ida~~vestmantl dividends I'd~vrdendzi32 dominate a market / , d ~ m ~ nae ~ t 'ma:krtI 20 donate Idau'nertl 12 donation 1dau1nerJanl 12 downmarket I,daun1ma:k~tl23 downshifter ildaunJ1fta1 43 downshifting I'daunJ~ftrqI43 downsized /,daun'sarzd/ 7 downtime l'dauntarml 42 dress-down fridays 1,dres daun 'frarderd 46 drive ldra~vl44 drive a hard bargain l , d r a ~ va ha:d 'ba:grnl 66 drive out of a market l,dra~v aut av a 'ma:k~ti 20 drugstore 1'dragsts:l 24 dull ldali 2 44 dynamism l'da~nam~zami e-procurement l'i: pra,kjuamanti 26 e-tailing l'i: te~liql26 earn 1s:nl 5 earnings /'3:n1qzJ 33 ease 1i:zJ 39 l economic l , i : k a ' n ~ m ~ k38 economic indicators l,i:ka,n m ~ k'1nd1kertazI38 economical l,i:ka1n~mrkaV3 8 economies of scale 11,k~namiz av 'ske~li28 economy 11'k~namii38 education 1,edgu'keiJanl 4 effective 11~fekt1vl14 efficiency Ir'f~Jansii7 efficiently Ir'fiJantlil 17 electronic commercelecommerce /,elek,t r ~ n ~ k 'k~ms:s/,i:' k ~ m s : s11, / 26 electronic mail/e-mail/email I,elek,tr~n~k'me~li'i: me~li 26,53 embezzle l~m'bezli40 embezzlement l1m'bezlmantl40 emerging industries /1,m3:dg1q '~ndastrizl13 employ Irm'pl31l 3 employees irm'pl3ri:zi 6 employment agencies /rm1p13rmant ,erdgansiz/ 3 empower Irm'pauai 44 empowerment l~m'pauamanti 44 end-users 1,end1ju:zazJ 19 endorsements i1n~d3:smantsI 25 energy l'enadgii 44 engaged tone i~n'gerdgdtaunl 49 enhancements 11n'ha:nsmantsl 18 enterprise I'entaprarzl 11, 11 enterprise culture 1,entaprarz 'kaltJa1 11 enterprise economy 1,entaprarz ~ ' k ~ n a m11 il enterprise zone i'entaprarz zaunl 11 entertaining i,enta'tern~qI47 entrepreneur i,~ntrapra'ns:l10 entrepreneurial 1,~ntrapra'ns:riaV10 entry-level i'entri levaV 23 environmental i~n,va~aran'mentaV 41 environmentally damaging I~n,vararan,mentali 'dzm~dgrql41 equal opportunities 1,i:kwal ,~pa'tju:natid8 equipment 11'kw1pmantl 59 equity l'ekw~tii32 Jl establish l ~ ' s t z b l ~ 10 establishment 11'stzblrJmanti 10 ethical l'e01kaV 41 ethical investment 1,eerkal ~n'vestmantl41 etiquette I'etrketl 63 exceptional profit iik,sepJanal ' p r ~ f ~31 tl exciting I ~ k ' s a ~ t 2~ q l executive/exec l~g'zekjat~vl~g'zeki 9 28 expenditure i~k'spend~tJal 27 expenses l~k'spens~zl expensive lrk'spensrvl 23 experience Irk'sp~ariansl3 experience curve l~k'sp~arians k3:vI 28 exploit 1ek1spl3rtI 41 Business Vocabulary in Use exports I'eksp3:tsl 38 extension 11k'stentJanI 48, 49 extraordinary general meeting(EGM) 11k~str3:danari ,dgenarallmi:t~g/54 tl eye contact l ' a ~ , k ~ n t a e k47, 60 s face the audience / , f e ~di: '3:diansI 60 facilities lfa's~latizi59 fact Ifaektl 60 factory l'faektaril 16 fakes lferksl 40 faking I ' f e ~ k ~ g40l fallback position I1f3:lbaek p a , z r P d 63 familiar Ifa'm~lial45 family name I'faemali nerml 46 2 fascinating I'faes~nert~gl fast-moving consumer goods 1,fa:st mu:vrg kan,sju:ma 'gudz 1 (FMCG)22 fat cats I'faet kaetsl 5 fax lfaeksl52 features 1'fi:tJazl 2 1 fierce If~asl20 file for bankruptcy /,fa11fa 'baegkr~ptsii33 final offers 1,farnal ' ~ f a z l65 finance l'fa~naensl38 financed l'fa~naenstl1 7 financial 1fa1'nienJaV 13, 36, 38 financial centres 1fa1,naentJal 'sentazl 36 financial institutions lfa1,naenJal ,~ntst~'tju:Janzi 36 financial services /far ,naenJal 'S~:VISIZ/ 13 financial year 1fa1,naenJal ' j ~ a l 30 finish on time 1,frnrJ Dn 'tarmi 55 finished goods l , ' f ~ n ~'gudz Jt I 17,22 fire Ifa~al7 firm 1 f s : d 11 firstly I1fs:stlii 60 t 30 fixed assets / , f ~ k s 'asetsl l fixed costs / , f ~ k s 'tk ~ s t s 27 flair lfleal 44 flat l'flaetl 7 7 flexibility /,fleks~'b~latii flexitimelflextimel'fleksit a ~ m l 'flekstarml 2 164 Business Vocabulary in Use flip chart I ' f l ~ ptJa:t/ 60 float Iflautl 36 flotation Iflau'terJad 36 focus groups I'faukas gru:ps/ 14 food processing 1,fu:d prau'ses~gl13 foreign exchange 1 forex / , f ~ r ~ n ~ks'tJe~ndgI 36 forgers I1f3:dgazl 40 forgery Iif3:dgarii 40 formally I1f3:maW 46 forms of address 1,fg:mz av a'dresl 45 forward ltf3:wad 53 found If aund I 10 founder l'faundal 10 franchisee l,fraenJa~'zi:/24 franchises I'fraenJarz~zl24 franchisor I1fraenJarzal 24 fraud Ifr3:d 40 fraud squad I'fr3:d s k w ~ d40 free enterprise lfri: 'entaprarzl 11 free gift lfri: ' g ~ f t l25 free sample lfri: 'sa:mpV 25 freelancerlfreelance I1fri:la:nsa 'fri:la:ns/ 7 freephone number 1'fri:faun , n ~ m b a 48 l friendly bid 1,frendli ' b r d 34 fringe benefits l,fr1nd3 ' b e n ~ f ~ t s l 5 full-time job 1,ful tarm ' d 3 ~ b i1 full-time work 1,ful tarm 'w3:W 1 fund-raising / ' f ~ n dre1z1~112 futures contract I1fju:tJaz , k ~ n t r a k t36 / gains lge~nzl37 Gantt chart I'gaent tJa:tl 42 gearing I'gra~gl32 generic products Idga'ner~k ' p r ~ d ~ k t22 sl generics ldgalnerrW 22 gesture l1d3estJa1 47, 60 get down to business lget daun ta 'brzn~sl56, 63 get the ball rolling /,get da b3:l 'raul~gl56 get through lget '0ru:l 49 give in Igrv ' r d 65 glass ceiling 1,gla:s 'si:11gl 8 glut /CJlAt/ 16 go bankrupt Igau 'baegkr~ptl 33 go into administration 1,gau go into liquidation 1,gau ~ n t a , l ~ k w ~ ' d e ~ 33 Jad go into the red 1,gau ~ n t ada r e d 35 go-slow Igau'slaul 6 going concern Igau~gkanlss:nl 30 good Igud I 4 good organizer Igud '3:ganarzal 55 good timekeeper Igud 'tarm,ki:pa/ 55 goods lgudz I 1 7 goodwill Igud'wrV 30 goodwill gesture Igud'w11 ,dgestJa/ 64 government-owned companies 1,g~vanmantaund 'k~mpanizl11 graduate from l'graedguwe~t graduates l'graedguatsl 4 green activists 1,gri:n 'aekt~v~stsl 41 green issues 1'gri:n ,rJu:z/ 41 greetingslgoodbyes I1gri:t~gz gud'ba~zl47 gross domestic product (GDP) 1,graus da,mestrk ' p r ~ d ~ k t l 38 gross margin Igraus ' m a : d g ~ d 27 gross national product (GNP) /,graus naeJanal ' p r ~ d ~ k38 tl tl gross profit Igraus ' p r ~ f ~31 ground lgraund I 54, 64 group discussion 1gru:p d ~ ' s k ~ J a3d grow Igraul 10, 38 growth industries l'grau0 ,rndastriz/ 13 growth rate l'grau0 re1t1 38 haemorrhage red ink I1hemarrd3 ,red ,rgW 31 haggle llhegV 64 hand in your notice /,haend In j3: 'naut~sl7 hand-made lhaend'me~d16 handle l'handli 17 handout l'handautl 60 handwriting analysis I'haend,rartrg a,nielasrs/ 3 hang up I ' h a r ~~ p 49 l harass l'haeras ha'raesl 8 hard 1ha:dl 2 head Ihed 9 head office Ihed ' ~ f 1 s 16 headhunt l ' h e d h ~ n t l3 headhunter I'hedh~ntal3 t 3 headhunting l ' h e d h ~ n101 headquarters (HQ) I,hed1kw3:taz-'-I 6 health and safety inspectors /,he10an ' s e ~ f t~n,spektaz/ i 8 health and safety issues /,he10 an ' s e ~ f t ,1Ju:z1 i 8 healthcare Iihel0kear/ 13 heavy industries 1,hevi '~ndastrizl13 hedging I'hedg11~158 helpline /'helpla~n/48 hi-tech /,ha~'teld15 45 hierarchical /,ha~a'ra:k~kaV high finance /ha1 'fa~nansl38 high-end 1ha1'end 23 t/ high-priced / h a ~ ' p r a ~ s23 high-street banks /,ha1 stri:t 'baer~ksl35 , highly geared Iha~li' g ~ a r d 32 highly leveraged 1ha1li 'li:var~dgd/ 32 hire I'ha~al3 hiring l'ha1a11~13 hits I h ~ t s l26 hold shares Ihauld'JeazI 32 holiday I'hulade~l47 64 horse-trading I'hxs tre1d11~1 i/ hospitality I , h ~ s p ~ ' t a l a t47 hostile bid /,hustaIl'b~d34 hotline I ' h ~ t l a ~ n48l household goods 1,haushauld 'gudz I 13 HTH 53 human resource management (HRM) 1,hju:man 'r1z3:s ,man~dgmant/6 human resources (HR) 1,hju:man ~ I ' Z ~ : S I6Z / human resources department (HRD) 1,hju:man 'r1z3:s1z d1,pa:tmantl 6 humour I1hju:ma/ 47 hypermarket /'ha~pa,ma:k~t/ 24 icons I'a~kunzl53 impasse I'aempaesl 66 impolite /,rmpallart/ 57 imports l'rmp3:tsl 38 imposed l~m'pauzdl44 in charge of 11n 'tJa:dg avl 1 in parallel 11n 'paeraleli 42 in stock 11n s t ~ l d17 in the black 11nda 'blaeld 35 in the red 11nda ' r e d 31 in-house 11n'haus I 4, 7, 17 in-house training l ~ nhaus , 'tre~n~r~l 4 income statement 1'1gk~m ,ste~tmant/31 incorporated/Inc 1rn1k3:pare~t~dl 12 32 indebtedness I~n'det~dnasl index 1'1ndeksl 37 indexes 1'1ndeks1zl 37 indices 1'1nd1si:zl 37 indirect costs / , ~ n d ~ r e'kkt~ s t s l 27 industrial 11n'd~striaV6 rial industrial action 11n,d~st 'aekJan1 6 industrial robots / ~ n , d ~ s t r i a l ' r a u b ~ t s l16 industrial scale / ~ n , d ~ s t r i a l 'ske~V14 riala~zl13 industrialize 11n'd~st industry 1'1ndastriI 13 re1t1 inflation rate I~n'fle~Jan 38 I 38 inflationary I~n'fle~Janari information line / , ~ n f a ' m e ~ J a n la1n1 48 initiative l ~ ' n ~ J a t ~44v / inland revenue 1,1nland 'revanju:/ 29 innovate 1'1nave1tI 15 innovative 1'1navat1vI 15 inputs 1'1nputsI 17 insider dealing 11n,sa1da'di:11g/ 40 insider trading 11n,sa1da 'tre1d11~140 tl insolvent I ~ n ' s ~ l v a n33 intangible assets l~n~taendgabl 'aesetsl 30 intellectual property l,~ntalektjual'propati1 15 intense 11n'tensI20 interest 1'1ntrastl32, 34, 35 internet access 1'1ntanet ,aekses/ 26 internet banking 1,lntanet 'bagk11~135 internet service provider(1SP) 1,1ntanet 'S~:VIS pra,va~da/ 26 interruptions I,~ na'r~pJanz1 t 42 interviews 1'1ntavju:zI 3 introduce I,~ntra'dju:sl59 invent 11n'ventI 15 inventories 1'1nvantrizI 17 invest 11n'vestl 32 investment companies i~n'vestmant,k~mpaniz/35 investors I~n'vestazl32, 36 invoice l'1nv31sI 29 invoicing 1'1nv31s1r~I29 irreconcilable differences I,~rekansa~labl 'd~farans~zi 66 issue 1'1Ju:l 66 issued 1'1Ju:d 36 issues 1'1Ju:zI 41 job insecurity 1,dgub ~ns~'kjuarati/ 7 job title I ' d g ~ bt a ~ t l l46 jobless l'dgoblasl 38 join Idg311i 3 joint account /,dg31nt a'kauntl 35 t joint venture 1 , d g ~ n'ventJa1 34 jump l d g ~ m p i39 k 24 junk mail I ' d g ~ r ~me~V m/ just-in-time / , d g ~ s t ~ n ' t a ~17 kaizen 1ka1'zei 18 keep calm 1,ki:p 'ka:m/ 57 keep things moving 1,ki:p 01gz 'mu:v~r~/ 54 key accounts Iki: a'kaunts I 29 key players Iki: 'ple1azl20 keypad I1ki:pad/ 49 kick off 1k1k 'ufl 56, 63 kickback I'k~kbald40 knowledge I'nu11dgl 17 laboratories /la1burat arizl 14, 15 labour-intensive /,le~ba ~ n ' t e n t s ~ v16l labourflabor I'le~bal6, 17, 41, 60 labourflabor unions I'le~ba ,ju:njanz/ 6 last mile problem 1,la:st ma11 'prublami 26 Business Vocabulary in Use latecomers I'le~tkamazl55, 60 lay off 1le1 ' ~ f7l leadership /'li:daJ~p/ 10,44 leadership skills /'li:daJ~psk~lzl 10,44 leading edge /,li:d~g'edgl 15 leadtime /'li:dta~m/ 42 lean manufacturing /,li:n ,mznjalfzktJar~g/17 lean production /li:n pratdakJad 17 leaner i1li:na/ 7 leap ili:p/ 39 learning curve /'ls:n~gks:v/ 28 lecture I1lektJa/ 59 legible I'ledgabli 52 leisure /'legal 13 lender /'lendat 32 letters of application 1,letazav , z p l ~ ' k e ~ J a n3 / l level off /,leva1 ' ~ f 39 leverage /'li:var~dg/ 32 licence I'la~sansl15 lie /la1 / 65 life insurance companies Aa~f In'Juarans ,klunpaniz/ 12 43 lifestyles I'la~fsta~lzl light industries 1la1t '~ndastrid 13 limited companyLtd /,11m1t~d 'kampanii 12 limited liability /,11m1t1d ,la1a1b1latii12 line /la~n/48 list price I'l~stpra1sl23 listed I ' l ~ s t ~ d36l loan capital Ilaun ' k z p ~ t a l i32 log off I l ~ g'ufl26 log on I l ~ g' ~ n 26 / long-hours culture / , l ~ g,auaz 'kdtJa1 45 g long-term liabilities / , l ~ ts:m ,la~a'brlatiz/30 lose your job 1,lu:z j3: ' d g ~ b l7 lose your temper 1,lu:z j3: 'tempat 57 loss ADS/ 23, 28, 31 loss leader /IDS'li:da/ 23, 28 gl loss-making 1'1~sr n e ~ k ~28 low-end Ilau'end 23 low-key /lau'ki:/20 low-priced /lauipra~st/23 low-tech /laultek/ 15 i 25 loyalty cards I ' b ~ a l tka:dz/ Business Vocabulary in Use lunch break I'lanJ bre~k/47 macho culture 1,mztJau 'kaltJa/ 45 magnate I ' m z g n e ~ t l10 mailings I'me111gzl 24 mailshots /'me11J~ts/24 make a loss / , m e ~ ak ' 1 ~ ~311 make a point / , m e ~ ka 'p31ntI 55 make a profit / , m e ~ ka ' p r ~ f ~ t i 28,31 make a sale / , m e ~ ak 'sell/ 27 make a start / , m e ~ ak 'sta:t/ 56 make an application / , m e ~ kan z p l r ' k e ~ J a d3 make redundant / , m e ~ k rl'dandantl 7 make up time / , m e ~ ka p ' t a l d 42 maker l'rne~kal16 manage I'mzn~dgl1 , 3 5 manage an account / , m z n ~ d gan aukaunt/35 management I'mzn~dgmantl4, 6, 44, 45 management development /,mzn~dgmantd~~velapmantl 4 management layers /,mznrdgmant 'le~azl45 management styles 1,mznrdgmant 'sta~lzl44 mannerisms I'mznar~zamzl60 manufactured /,mznjalfzktJad 16 manufactured goods /,mznja,fzktJad 'gudzl 16 manufacturer /,mznjaufzktJara/ 16 manufacturing industries /,mznja,fzktJar~g'lndastrizl 13 manufacturing plant /,mznjalfzktJar~g pla:nt/ 16 manufacturing sector /,mznja,fzktS.r~g'sektal 13 mark-up 1,ma:k apt 27 market economy /,ma:k~t ~ ' k ~ n a m19 ii market forces /,ma:k~t' ~ ~ : s I z / 19 market growth /,ma:k~t'grau01 20 market leader /,ma:k~t'li:da/ 20 market orientation /,ma:k~t ,3:rienfte~Jan/21 market place /'ma:k~tple~sl19 market pressures /,ma:k~t 'preJazJ 19 market research /,ma:k~t r~'ss:tJ/ 14 market rigging /,ma:k~t' r ~ g /~ g 40 market segment /,ma:k~t 'segmant / 20 market segmentation /,ma:k~t ,segmen'te~Jan/20 market share /,ma:k~t'Seal 20 market-driven /,ma:k~t'dr~van/ 21 market-led /,ma:k~t' l e d 21 market-oriented /,ma:k~t '3:rientldl 21 a/ marketeer / , m a : k ~ ' t ~21 marketer /'ma:k~ta/ 21 / marketing / , m a : k ~ t ~ g21 marketing concept / , m a : k ~ t ~ g ' k ~ n s e p t i21 marketing mix / , m a : k ~ t ~'rn~ksl g 21 mass-produce /,mzs pra'dju:s/ 16 matters arising 1,mztaz a ' r a ~ z ~ g l 55 media /'media/ 1 3 mediation /,rni:di1e~Jan/66 mediator I1mi:die~ta/66 meeting /'mi:t~g/ 54 member I'membal 12 memorize I'memara~zl59 merge /ms:dg/ 34 merger I1ms:dga/ 34 methodical Ima'0~d1kaV4 microphone l'rna~krafaud60 23 mid-priced Im~d'pra~stl 23 mid-range Irn~d're~ndgl middlemen /'mrdlmen/ 24 minimum wage / , m ~ n ~ m a m 'we~dgi5 minute-taker I ' m ~ n t~et~ k a55 l mobile I'mauba~V48 mobile phone /,mauba11'faun/ 48 model / ' m ~ d a V22,23 moderated i ' m ~ d a r e ~ t l65 d mogul I'maugaV 10 money laundering I'mani ,b:ndar~g/40 money spinners l'mrmni ,sp~naz/ 28 monotone I ' m ~ n a t a u d60 mortgage /'ms:g~dg/ 35 motivated l ' m a u t ~ v e ~ t4~ d multimedia presentation l,mrmlti'mi:dia ,prezanltelJan/ 60 multinational l,m~ti'nzJanaV 11 mutual /'mju:tJuaV 12, 35, 62 mutual advantage 1,mju:tJual ad1va:nt1d31 62 mutual funds /,mju:tJual 'frmndzl 35 mystery shoppers /,m~stari ' J ~ p a z l18 nationalized l'nzJanalalzd 11 needs /ni:dz / 63 negative growth /,negat~v 'grauO/ 39 62 negotiate /n~'gauJie~t/ gI negotiating / n ~ ' g a u l i e ~ t ~63, 65 negotiations /n~,gauli'e~Janz/ 62 negotiator /nllgauJielta/ 62 neon signs /,ni:~n'salnd 25 nervous breakdown /'ns:vas 'bre~kdaunl43 net margin /,net 'ma:dg~n/ 27 net profit /,net ' p r ~ f ~31 t/ niche market /,ni:l 'ma:k~tl 23 night shift / ' n a ~ Jt ~ f t /2 nine-to-five job / n a ~ nta f a ~ v ' d g ~ b /2 non-core assets / , n ~ k3: n 'resets/ 34 non-executive directors / n ~ n ~g,zekjat~ d1'rektad v 9 non-negotiable / n ~ n n1'gauliabl 65 non-profit organizations / n ~ n , p r ~ f ,3:gana1'zelJanz/ ~t 12 not-for-profit organizations / n ~ t f3: ' p r ~ f ,3:gana1,zerJand ~t 12 numerate /Inju:marat/ 4 63 objective /ab1dgekt~v/56, obsolete /'~bsali:t/15 obstacles / ' ~ b s t a k l d65 offer / ' ~ f a /3, 64 S 2 office worker / ' D ~ Iws:ka/ offices / ' D ~ I S6I ~ n on neutral ground / ~ ,nju:tral 'graund / 63 n 42 on schedule / ~ 'Jedju:V open /'aupanl 44 open-plan offices /,aupan 'plzn , D ~ I S I6~ al operator / ' ~ p a r e ~ t 49 options contract 1'~pJanz , k ~ n t r z k t /36 order 1'3:daI 29 organized 113:gana~zd4 original concept /alrldganal ' k ~ n s e p t 14 l out of work /,aut av 'w3:W 38 outline I1autlaln/ 59 outplacement /'aut ,ple~smant/ 7 outside suppliers /,autsald salplalaz/ 17 outsource /'auts3:s/ 7 outsourcing /'auts3:slg/ 1 7 outstanding /,autlstrend~g/66 t/ over budget /,auva ' b ~ d g ~28 overdraft llauvadra:ft/ 35 overhead costs I'auvahed , k ~ s t s 27 / overhead projector (OHP) /,auvahed prauldgekta/ 60 overheads I1auvahedz/27 overlap /'auvalrep/ 42 overleveraged Iauva '1i:verldgd 32 overproduction /,auvapra'd~klan/16 overspent /,auvalspent/ 28 overtime /'auvata~m/5, 6 overwhelmed l,auva'welmd 43 overwork /auvalws:W 43 owe Iaul 29 own-brand product /aunlbrrend , p r ~ d ~ k22 t/ own-label product Iaun 'lelbal , p r ~ d ~ k22 t/ packaging / ' p z k ~ d g ~ g21/ page views /pe~dg'vju:zl 26 pager /'pe~dgal48 panic selling I ' p z n ~ ksel1g1 37 paper qualifications /'pe~pa , k w ~ l r f ~ ' k e ~ l a4n z l parent company /'pearant ,k~mpanU34 part-time job /,pa:t t a ~ m' d g ~ b / 1 part-time work /,pa:t t a m 'w3:W 1 partners llpa:tnazJ 17 partnership /'pa:tnaJ~pl 12 parts /pa:tsl 17 password llpa:sws:d 26 patents /'pe~tants/15 pay / p e ~ /5 / pay off / ' p e ~ f 35 payables I'pe1abld29 payment terms I'pe~mant ts:mz/ 29 payphone /'pe~faun/48 payroll I'pelraul 6 peak lpi:W 39 penalties l'penaltiz/ 42 penetrate a market /,pen~trelta 'ma:k~t/20 pension /'pentJan/ 5, 35 perfectionism /palfekJan~zam/ 42 performance /pa1f3:mans/ 5, 7, 18 performance reviews /pa1f3:mans r1,vju:zl 7 performance-related bonuses / p a , f ~ m a n r1'1e1t1d s ' b a u n a s ~ d5 perks /ps:ksl 5 permanent I1ps:manantl 1 personal organizers /'ps:sanal '3:gana1zazl 42 personnel /,ps:salnel 6 personnel department pharmaceuticals /,fa:malsju:t~kalz/13 phase /fe~z/42 phone /faun/ 48 phonecard llfaunka:d 48 physical contact / , f ~ z ~ k a l 'k~ntrekt/47 physical delivery / , f ~ z ~ k a l d1'11varii 26 pitch /prtl/ 60 place /ple~s/21 an '3:da/ place an order /,ple~s 29 plastic I'plrest~W35 plummet / ' p l m ~ t /39 l poison pill / ' p ~ z a n, p ~ 34 position /pa'z~lan/3 post /paust/ 3 postpone Ipaust'paud 65 ess Vocabulary in U s e pre-tax loss 1pri:tzks 'IDS/ 31 pre-tax profit 1pr:tzks ' p r ~ f ~ t / 31 precisely 1pr1'saislii 57 predator I'predatal 34 present I'prezant l 47 presenteeism /prezanlti:zd 47 president I'prez~dantl9 press conference I'pres ,k~nfarans/59 pressure i1preJar/43 prey Ipre11 34 price Ipra~sl19,21,23,40 price boom I'pra~sb u : d 23 price controls I'prals kantraulzl 23 / price cut /'pra~sk ~ t 23 price fixing I'pra~sf1ks1g140 price hike I'pra~sha~W23 s 23 price leader / , p r a ~ '1i:daI price tag I'pra~stzgl 23 price war I'pra~sws:/ 23 pricing I'pra1s11~123 principal /'pr~nsapall32 z/ priorities / p r a ~ ' ~ r a t i 63 a~z/ prioritize / p r a ~ ' ~ r ~ t42 ii priority l p r a ~ l ~ r a t42 t l 35 private I ' p r a ~ v ~11, private enterprise /,praiv~t production lines Ipra'd~kJan la1nz1 16 productive I p r a ' d ~ k t ~ 54 vl atii productivity / , p r ~ d ~ k ' t ~ v 16 profit and loss account / , p r ~ f ~ t and '10s akauntl 31 ~ r o f i margin t I ' p r ~ f ,ma:dg~ni ~t 27 ~t profit-making I ' p r ~ f me1k1g1 28 profitability /,pr~f1ta'b111tii28 profitable i ' p r ~ f ~ t a b28 y profits i ' p r ~ f ~ t 7s l project /'pr~dgekt/42, 54, 60 project management /,pr~dgekt 'mzn~dgmantl42 promotion /pralmauJani 7, 21, 25 proposals /pralpauzalz/ 64 proprietary Ipra'pra~atarii15 protection lpraltekJani 33 prototypes I'prautata~psl14 prove your point /,pru:v js: ' p s ~ n t l57 provided that Iprau'va~d~d bztl 64 providing that I p r a u ' v a ~ db~z t~l ~ 64 psychometric tests /,sa~kau,rnetr~k 'tests1 3 public holidays / , p ~ b l ~ k privatized /'pra~v~ta~zcU 11 proactive /,praulzekt~v/4 ' h ~ l a d e ~ 47 zi public limited company / , p ~ b l ~ k probing /'praub1gl64 problem i ' p r ~ b l a d60 ,11m1trd'k~mpanilfflc 12 produce /'pr~dju:s/16 public telephone / , p ~ b l ~ k producer /praldju:sa/ 16,24 'tel~fauni48 product / ' p r ~ d ~ k14, t / 15, 16, punctuality /,p~nktJu'zlatii47 21,22,25,28, 59 purchaser 1'ps:tJasal 19 product development / , p r ~ d ~ k t purchasiilg managers /,ps:tJas~r~ d~~velapmantl 15 'mzn~dgazl19 product launch / , p r ~ d ~ k t purpose I1ps:pas/ 56 '1s:ntJI 14, 59 put back /put 'bzW 51 product lifecycle / , p r ~ d ~ k t put off /put 'Df/ 51 'la~fs~k(e)Y 22 put through /put '0ru:I 49 product line i ' p r ~ d ~lka t~ n i22 put up money /put ~p ' m ~ n i i32 qualifications /,kw~11f1'ke1$anzl kt 22 product mix I ' p r ~ d ~m1ks1 product placement 1 , p r ~ d ~ k t 3, 46 ' ~ l e ~ s m a n22 tl qualify as / ' k w ~ l ~zfza/ ~4 product portfolio / , p r ~ d ~ k t quality l'kw~latii18, 42, 43 quality circles I ' k w ~ l a t,ss:klz/ i ,ps:t 'fauliaul 22 product positioning / , p r ~ d ~ k t 18 palz~Janlg/22 quality control / , k w ~ l a t i kt product range / , p r ~ d ~'re1nd31 kan'trauy 18 22 168 Business Vocabulary in Use quality of life / , k w ~ l a tav i 'la~fi 43 d quality time / ' k w ~ l a t 'i t a ~ 43 question I'kwestJani 59, 60 questionnaires /,kwestJa'neaz/ 14 quoted I ' k w a u t ~ d36 racial discrimination /,re~Jal d ~ , s k r ~ m ~ ' n e ~8J a n / racism I ' r e ~ s ~ z a8d racist I ' r e ~ s ~ s8t l z/ racketeers / , r z k ~ ' t ~ a r40 raise capital 1re1z 'kzp~taY32 rally i'rzlii 37 rambling l'rzmbl~gl54 rat race I'rzet re1s1 43 rate / r e ~ t /35 raw materials / , r x ma't~arialzl 17,22 reach agreement 1,ri:tJ algri:mant/ 58 reach break-even point 1,ri:tJ b r e ~ k'i:van p s ~ n t l28 realistic plan I , r ~ a l ~ s'plzni t~k 42 reassure lIri:a1Jua/ 65 rebalancing /ri:'bzlans11~143 recall /r1'k3:l/ 14 receivables /r~'si:vablz/29 receive 1r1'si:vl 53 receivers /r~'si:vaz/ 33 33 receivership /r~'si:vaJ~p/ recession 1r1'seS.d 39 recommended retail price 1,rekamendld 'ri:te11 pra~sl 23 reconsider its position /,ri:kan,'s~da~ t pa'z~Jani s 65 record high 1,reks:d 'ha11 37 a/ recover / r ~ ' k ~ v 33 recovery / r ~ ' k ~ v a r33, i i 37 recruit 1r1'kru:tl 3 recruiter 1r1'kru:tal 3 recruitment /r~'kru:tmant/ 3 red ink Ired 'IIJW 31 referees /,refairi:z/ 3 references I'refarans~zl3 reforms /r~'fs:mz/ 19 register I1red31sta/ 26 regulate I'regjale~tl40 rehearse /r~'hs:s/ 59 ~n remain steady / r ~ , m e 'stedii 39 remote /r~'maut/44, 45 remuneration /r~,rnju:na're~Janl 5 remuneration package ir~,rnju:na'ra~Jan ' p a k ~ d g5i repetitive /r~'petatrv/2 repetitive strain injury (RSI) / r ~ , p e t a t ~' svt r e ~ n,rndgarii 8 reply /rilplar/ 49, 53 reports /r1'p3:ts/ 31 representatives / , r e p r ~ ' z e n t a t ~ v63 d research and development (R&D) 1r1'ss:tJ an d~~velaprnantl 15 research centreicenter / r ~ ' s ~ : t J ,senta/ 15 researchers inlsa:tJazi 14 reseller 1ri:'selal 24 resend 1ri:'sendi 52 resign / r ~ ' z a ~ n7 / resolution /,rezallu:Jan/ 66 v/ resolve / r ~ ' z ~ l 55 responsibility / r ~ , s p ~ n s a ' b ~ l a t i i 1 responsible for / r ~ ' s p ~ n s afs:/ bl 1 restructure /,ri:'str~ktJai7 restructuring /,ri:'str~ktJarrg/ 34 result i r r ' z ~ l t28, i 31 retail ilri:terY 13, 24 retail outlet /'ri:te~I,autlati 24 retailers /'ri:te~laz/ 24 retained earnings Irrternd 's:n~gzi33 retire 1r1'taraI 7 retirement /rritaramant/ 7 return your call 1r1ts:n j3: 'k3:li 49 revenue ilrevanju:/ 27 rewarding / ~ I ' w ~ : ~43 IIJ/ reworking /,ri:'w3:k1g/ 18 right first time i,rart ,fs:st ' t a ~ m18 i ring ir1g1 48 rival I'ra~vaV20 role of silence iraul av 'sarlansi 47 rollout /'raulaut/ 14 round of negotiations i,raund av nI1gauJi1erJanz/62 routine 1ru:'ti:nl 2 royalties i'r.s~altiz/15 rude iru:d 57 rules of conversation 1,ru:lz av k ~ n v a ' s e r J a d47 run i r ~ 1 d run out of time / r ~ aut n av ' t a ~ d58 run over / r ~ n'auval 60 sack /saki 7 safe / s e ~ f /14 salary iisalarii 5 sale Ise1Il27 sale price per unit /,se11prars p3: 'ju:nrt/ 28 sales areasisales territories I'serlz ,eariaz/'se~lz ,ter~tariz/25 z/ sales figures il,serlz , f ~ g a ~27 sales forecast lse~lz,f3:ka:sti 27 sales forecasts I'serlz ,f3:ka:sts/ 14 sales growth Iiserlz grauO127 sales manager i'se~lzmzn~dgai 25 sales meeting l'se~lzmi:trgI 27 sales outlet i'serlz autletl 24 sales team /'se~lzti:m/ 27 salesforce iise~lzf3:si25 salesmen /'se~lzman/25 salespeople /'se~lzpi:pll 25 25 saleswomen /'se~lzwrm~n/ satisfying /'sztrsfa~rg/2 savings account /'serv~gz akaunti 35 scam isksed 40 schedule I1Jedju:V 42 screen /skri:n/ 60 search engine i1s3:tJ endg~n/ 26 n plseni 59 seating ~ l a ilsi:trg secondly ilsekandlii 60 securely is1'kjuarlii 26 36 securities is~~kjuaratizi security /srikjuaratil26, 32, 36 selection process Isr'lekJan prausesl 3 self-driven /,self 'dr~vani 4 self-employed /,self rrnlpl.srdi 11,12 self-motivated /,self 'maut rve~t 1dl4 self-starters iself 'sta:taz/ 4 seller i'selai 19 seminar /'sem~na:i 59 send an email /,send an 'i:rne~V 53 senior I1si:nia/ 7, 46 senior executive 1,si:nia ~ g ' z e k j a t ~9v i service industries /'SB:VIS ~ndastrizl13 sekta.1 13 service sector /'S~:VIS services /'SB:VISIZ/ 13, 19 settle disputes /,set1drlspju:tsi 62 settlement I'setlrnanti 66 severance package I'sevarans p a k ~ d j i5 severance payment I1sevarans pe~mantl5 sex discrimination Iseks d~,skrrmr'neiJanl8, 41 sexual harassment 1,sekJual ha'rasmanti 8 share capital /,Sea ,kapitaV 32 share options /'Sea ~ p J a n z 5i share price /'Sea pra1s1 37 shareholders /'Jea,hauldazi 32 shares iJeazi 36 shift / J ~ f t /2 ship /SIP 1 29 shop /SDp/ 24 shopping cart /'JOPIIJka:ti 26 shopping centre /'JDPIOsent a/ 24 ~ shopping malls I ' J D P Irn3:lzl 24 shopping precinct / ' S D P I ~ pri:srgkt/ 24 shortage I1J3:trd3/ 16 shortlist /'J3:tl1st/ 3 show off /Jau ' ~ f I 5 4 sick 1s1ki 33 42 simultaneous /,s~mal'te~niasi site isart/ 6, 26 situation /,srtjulelJan/ 3 situations vacant l , s ~ t j u e ~ J a n z 've~kantl3 skill /skrl/ 4 skilled lskrld 4 t/ skyrocket / ' s k a r , r ~ k ~39 slash i s l d i 39 sleaze /sli:z/ 40 slide projector 1lsla1d praudgektal 60 slump i s l ~ m p l39 small investors ism.s:l mlvestaz/ 35 rsiness Vocabulary in Use small or medium-sized enterprise (SME)/,sms:l 3: ,mi:diam s a ~ z d'entapra~zl 11 small talk 1'sms:l t3:W 63 smart casual 1,sma:t 'kae3juaV 46 smile 1sma1V 60 snowed under lsnaud 'andal 51 soar /s3:/ 39 socially responsible /,sauJali r ~ ' s p ~ n s a b 41 l/ sole owner 1,saul'aunal 12 sole proprietor 1,saul pra'pra~atal12 sole trader 1,saul'treidal 12 id1 23 sophisticated Isa'f~st~kert special displays /,speJal d~'spleizl25 special offers /,speJal 'Dfa~l25 specifications/specs l,spes~f~'ke~Janzlspeksl 18 speculator l'spekjale~tal36 spend Ispendl 28 sponsor l ' s p ~ n s a l25 l sponsorship I ' s p ~ n t s a J ~ p25 t 18 spot checks / , s p ~ 'tJeks/ stable l'ste~bll39 staff /sta:fl 6 stage lsteid31 42 stagflation 1st aeg 'fle~Jan!39 stagnation /staeglne~Jan/39 tl stalemate l ' s t e ~ l m e ~66 stand-up presentation lstaend a p ,prezan'te~Jan!59 start-ups /'sta:taps/ 10 state pension 1,stelt 'penJan! 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Plan based on the loan 15 ) during the meeting finishes on time and., co-workers, and to a restaurant being produced, there are those who want to stay his. Pictures, diagrams, etc. ). ). ). ). ) ). Company - things are made by the government guilty of was less friendly than at lunchtime prices, convenient outlets! Pay the orchestra, Kerstin talks about the selection process, the itself. Company out of the needs of each franchisee could be used for offices and factories, the... An open-door policy where employees can come to work how we and our partner. Offer for our company rest of the selling price from another contact and teamwork, working with other.. Owes, that 's me but I 'm Vaclav and I 'm a artist! Exercises for intermediate and upper-intermediate learners of business is done over restaurant.. Use 39 making things products a product life cycles are so great that there will just be disagreement. sentence! That factories and offices are safe places to work part-time a job 9.1. Dictation exercises go with the bottom line 'you get the materials in 6..., from the market leader among UK supermarkets, Tesco sells more shown. Car designers Use CADCAM ( computer-assisteddesign / computer-assisted manufacturing ) to the one!